Received: 29th November 2022; Revised: 25th November 2022, 27th December 2022, 03rd January 2023; Accepted: 11th January 2023


  • Suhana Binti Ramli Master of Education, Institutional Audit Division, Malaysian Qualifications Agency, MQA, Cyberjaya, Malaysia
  • Farkhana Binti Omar Master in Law, Legal Unit, Malaysian Qualifications Agency, MQA, Cyberjaya, Malaysia
  • Jasni Bin Dolah Ts., Doctorate in Instructional Multimedia, School of The Arts, Malaysian Science University (USM), Penang, Malaysia
  • Sarifah Noor Azian Binti Syed Yasin Bachelor of Computer Science (Software Engineering), Human Resources Department, Malaysian Qualifications Agency, MQA, Cyberjaya, Malaysia
  • Muhammad Jafni Bin Jusof Master of Art, Freelancer, Cyberjaya, Malaysia




Student-Centered Learning, SCL, 2U2i, Work-Based Learning, WBL


The Malaysian education system must adapt to the 21st-century paradigm change to produce quality graduates who are holistic, balanced, entrepreneurially ready, bright, skilled, and knowledgeable. Student-centered learning (SCL), a teaching-and-learning (TnL) method, is being adopted in the system to develop students' inclinations and higher thinking capacity, revealing individuals' talents in a certain sector meanwhile, 2U2i and work-based learning (WBL) study modes were established to lessen students' reliance on traditional learning by emphasizing particular industrial in-field learning and continuous learning. The purpose of this study is to verify the reliability and validity of the instrument that will be used to determine the efficacy of SCL in 2U2i and WBL programs among participating local higher education providers (HEP) aside from confirming the existence of SCL elements within the programs. The initial data collection procedure involved questionnaires with students as well as industry players with whom the students are currently affiliated. The results suggest that the instrument used is viable and easily understandable by respondents. However, it is insufficient to formulate a truly effective instrument due to the small sample size and differences in the implementation of 2U2i and WBL programs, suggesting a complete data collection involving all related parties in future studies.


Al zefeiti, S.M.B. & Mohamad, N.A. (2017). The Influence of Organizational Commitment on Omani Public Employees' Work Performance. International Review of Management and Marketing, 7(2), 151-160.

Benlahcene, A., Lashari, S., Lashari, T. & Shehzad, W. (2020). Exploring the Perception of Students using Student-Centered Learning Approach in a Malaysian Public University. International Journal of Higher Education, 9(1), 204-217. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v9n1p204

Boud, D. & Solomon, N. (2001). Work-Based Learning: A New Higher Education? Open University Pr.

Brush, T. & Saye, J. (2000). Implementation and Evaluation of a Student-Centered Learning Unit: A case study. Educational Technology Research and Development, 48(3), 79-100. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02319859

Chen, C. & Chang, C-C. (2014). Mining learning social networks for cooperative learning with appropriate learning partners in a problem-based learning environment. Interactive Learning Environments, 22(1), 97-124. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2011.641677

Cicchetti, D.V. (1994). Guidelines, Criteria, and Rules of Thumb for Evaluating Normed and Standardized Assessment Instrument in Psychology. Psychological Assessment, 6(4), 284-290. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.6.4.284

Creswell, J.W. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. (4 ed.). PEARSON.

Daniel, D.B. (2012). Promising principles: Translating the science of learning to educational practice. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 1(1), 251–253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2012.10.004

Department of employment. (1993). Work Based Learning for Academic Credit: A Dissemination Document. Department of Employment, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

Felder, R.M & Brent, R. (2005). Understanding Student Differences. Journal of Engineering Education, 94(1), 57-72. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2168-9830.2005.tb00829.x

Fleiss, J.L. (1986). The Design and Analysis of Clinical Experiments. (1st ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Gibbs, G. (1995). Assessing Student Centred Courses. Oxford Brookes University Oxford Centre for Staff.

Hannafin, M.J., Hill, J.R. & Land, S.M. (1997). Student-Centered Learning and Interactive Multimedia: Status, Issues, and Implications. Contemporary Education, 68(2), 94-97. https://www.learntechlib.org/p/83620/

Hulin, C., Netemeyer, R. & Cudeck, R. (2001). Can a Reliability Coefficient Be Too High? Journal of Consumer Psychology, 10(1), 55-58. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327663JCP1001&2_05

Konting, M.M. (2005). Kaedah penyelidikan pendidikan. (7 ed.). Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa & Pustaka.

Lea, S.J., Stephenson, D. & Troy, J. (2003). Higher Education Students' Attitudes to Student-centred Learning: Beyond 'educational bulimia’? Studies in Higher Education, 28(3), 321-334. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075070309293

Malaysian Qualifications Agency. (2015). Guidelines To Good Practices: Workbased Learning (GGP: WBL). (1 ed.). Malaysian Qualifications Agency.

Mascolo, M.F. (2009). Beyond Student-Centered and Teacher-Centered Pedagogy: Teaching and Learning as Guided Participation. Pedagogy and the Human Sciences, 1(1), 3-27. https://scholarworks.merrimack.edu/phs/vol1/iss1/6

Md Osman, S.Z., Jamaludin, R. & Iranmanesh, M. (2015). Student Centered Learning At USM: What Lecturer and Students Think of This New Approach? Journal of Education and Practice, 6(19), 264-277. http://iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JEP

Ministry of Education. (2018). Malaysia Education Blueprint 2015-2025 (Higher Education). (1 ed.). Ministry of Education, Malaysia.

Ministry of Higher Education, (2017). Garis Panduan Pelaksanaan Mod Pengajian 2U2i. (1 ed.). Jabatan Pendidikan Tinggi.

Mohd Yusof, M.F., Wong, A., Ahmad, G., Che Aziz, R. and Hussain, K. (2020). Enhancing Hospitality and Tourism Graduate Employability Through The 2U2i Program. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 12(2), 137-144. https://doi.org/10.1108/WHATT-12-2019-0077

Munjanganja, L., Stolte, H. & Majumdar, S. (2009). International Conference: Reorienting TVET Policy Towards Education for Sustainable Development: Final Report. https://unevoc.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/docs/402-0002-2010_lowquality.pdf

Nunnally, J.C. & Bernstein, I.H. (1994). Psychometric Theory. (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill, New York.

Oluwatayo, J.E. (2012). Validity and Reliability Issues in Educational Research. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 2(2), 391–400. https://Doi:10.5901/jesr.2012.v2n2.391

O'neill, G. & Mcmahon, T. (2005). Student-Centered Learning: What Does It Mean for Students and Lectures. Emerging Issues in the Practice of University Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 31-39. http://www.aishe.org/readings/2005-1/

O'sullivan, E. (2003). Bringing a perspective of transformative learning to globalized consumption. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 27(4), 326 - 330. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1470-6431.2003.00327.x

Pallant, J. (2001). SPSS Survival Manual: A Step-by-Step Guide to Data Analysis Using SPSS For Windows version 10. Open University Press, Buckingham, 36(3).

Panitz, T. (1996). Collaborative versus Cooperative Learning: A Comparison of the Two Concepts Which Will Help Us Understand the Underlying Nature of Interactive Learning. Education Resources Information Center. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED448443

Rosenshine, B. (1973). Correlates Of Student Preference Ratings. Education Resources Information Center. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED076696.pdf

Sachdev, S.B. & Verma, H.V. (2004). Relative importance of service quality dimensions: A multisectoral study. Journal of Service Research, 4(1), 94-116. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/252640723

Sanders, W. L., & Rivers, J. C. (1996). Cumulative And Residual Effects of Teachers on Future Student Academic Achievement. Knoxville, YN: University of Tennessee Value-Added Research and Assessment Center.

Sekaran, U. (1992). A Skill-building Approach. In Sekaran, U.M.A. (Ed), Research methods for bussiness (pp.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Sobiechowska, P. & Maisch, M. (2006). Work‐based Learning: In Search of An Effective Model. Educational Action Research, 14(2), 267-286. https://doi.org/10.1080/09650790600718217

Stanley, T. & Marsden, S. (2012). Problem-based learning: Does accounting education need it? Journal of Accounting Education, 30(3-4), 267-289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaccedu.2012.08.005

Syed Hassan, S.A.H., Mohd-Yusof, K. & Zakaria, Z.Y (2021). Guideline to an Effective Implementation of Student-Centered Learning in Engineering Education: Informal Cooperative Learning (ICL). Asean Journal of Engineering Education, 4(2), 55-61. https://doi.org/10.11113/ajee2020.4n2.12

Todorovski, B., Nordal, E. & Isoski, T. (2015). Overview On Student - Centered Learning in Higher Education in Europe: Research Study. The European Students' Union.

Trofimov, A., Bondar, I., Trofimova, D., Miliutina, K. & Riabchych, I. (2017). Organizational Commitment Factors: Role of Employee Work Engagement. Espacios, 38(24), 18.

Watisin, W., Ismail, N.Z., & Mohd Hasyim, M.H. (2018). Teaching and Learning on Work-Based Learning (WBL) Program in Malaysia: Issues and Challenges in Industries. International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 119(18), 865-874. https://acadpubl.eu/hub/2018-119-18/1/63.pdf

Yunus, M. (2018). Investigating A Professional Teaching of The New Lecturer in Indonesia. The Journal of English Language Teaching in Foreign Language Context, 3(1), 2-7. https://doi.org/10.24235/eltecho.v3i1.2680




How to Cite

Ramli, S. B., Omar, F. B., Dolah, J. B., Yasin, S. N. A. B. S., & Jusof, M. J. B. (2023). 2U2i AND WBL-BASED PROGRAMS STUDENT-CENTERED LEARNING EFFICACY IN MALAYSIAN HIGHER EDUCATION: Received: 29th November 2022; Revised: 25th November 2022, 27th December 2022, 03rd January 2023; Accepted: 11th January 2023. Docens Series in Education, 4(.), 62–79. https://doi.org/10.20319/dv4.6279